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A brief history of urban water supply in antiquity

Mays, L. W., D. Koutsoyiannis, and A. N. Angelakis, A brief history of urban water supply in antiquity, Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 7 (1), 1–12, 2007.

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[English]

A brief history of ancient water supply techniques for urban areas from the earliest civilizations through the Roman times is presented. Throughout the history of urban centers, a sufficient water supply has been the backbone of each city. All sources of water, rivers, lakes, springs, underground sources, and rainwater collection, were exploited for urban supply starting from the earliest civilizations. The specific choice was depending upon the civilization, the geomorphology, the topography, and the local climatic and hydrological conditions. No large-scale lifting techniques were available; thus, water was transferred from the source by aqueducts from a higher altitude. Cisterns used for collection of rain water and wells for drawing groundwater were very well developed since the Bronze Age. During historical times, Greeks and later Romans reached a high level of water supply technologies that greatly influenced modern achievements in water engineering and management.

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See also: http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/ws.2007.001

Our works referenced by this work:

1. Koutsoyiannis, D., N. Mamassis, and A. Tegos, Logical and illogical exegeses of hydrometeorological phenomena in ancient Greece, Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 7 (1), 13–22, 2007.
2. Koutsoyiannis, D., N. Zarkadoulas, A. N. Angelakis, and G. Tchobanoglous, Urban water management in Ancient Greece: Legacies and lessons, Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management - ASCE, 134 (1), 45–54, 2008.

Our works that reference this work:

1. Cudennec, C., C. Leduc, and D. Koutsoyiannis, Dryland hydrology in Mediterranean regions -- a review, Hydrological Sciences Journal, 52 (6), 1077–1087, 2007.
2. Mamassis, N., and D. Koutsoyiannis, A web based information system for the inspection of the hydraulic works in Ancient Greece, Ancient Water Technologies, edited by L. W. Mays, 103–114, Springer, Dordrecht, 2010.
3. Koutsoyiannis, D., and A. Patrikiou, Water control in Ancient Greek cities, Water and Urbanization, edited by T. Ostigard, 130–148, 2013.
4. Koutsoyiannis, D., Reconciling hydrology with engineering, Hydrology Research, 45 (1), 2–22, 2014.

Other works that reference this work:

1. #Savic, D., Water distribution system analysis: Past, present, future, Approvvigionamento e Distribuzione Idrica: Esperienze, Ricerca ed Innovazione, 1-15, Morlacchi Editore, Ferrara, 2007.
2. #Mays, L.W., Ancient urban water supply systems in arid and semi-arid regions, International Symposium on New Directions in Urban Water Management, 12-14 Sep. 2007, UNESCO Paris, 2007.
3. Mays, L.W., A very brief history of hydraulic technology during antiquity, Environmental Fluid Mechanics, 8 (5-6), 471-484, 2008.
4. Monteleone, M.C., Evolution of the relation between human society and urban water from ancient roman times to modern urbanization, Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 8 (5), 551-556, 2008.
5. #Mays, L., Integrated Urban Water Management in Arid and Semi-Arid Climates, UNESCO-IHP, CRC Press, 2009.
6. #Mays, L. W., A brief history of water technology during antiquity: Before the Romans, In Ancient Water Technologies, edited by L. W. Mays, 1-28, Springer, Dordrecht, 2010.
7. #Mays, L. W., A brief history of Roman water technology, In Ancient Water Technologies, edited by L. W. Mays, 115-137, Springer, Dordrecht, 2010.
8. #Mays, L. W., Water Resources Engineering, 2nd ed., 890 pp., John Wiley and Sons, 2010.
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10. Rygaard, M., P. J. Binning and H.-J.Albrechtsen, Increasing urban water self-sufficiency: New era, new challenges, Journal of Environmental Management, 92 (1), 185-194, 2011.
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12. Gorokhovich, Y., L. Mays and L. Ullmann, A survey of ancient Minoan water technologies, Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 11 (4), 388-399, 2011.
13. #Angelakis, A. N., E. G. Dialynas and V. Despotakis, Historical development of water supply technologies in Crete, Greece through centuries, Proceedings 3rd IWA Specialized Conference on Water & Wastewater Technologies in Ancient Civilizations, Istanbul-Turkey, 218-224, 2012.
14. #Angelakis, A. N., A. G. Lyrintzis and S. V. Spyridakis, Urban water and wastewater technologies in Minoan Crete, Greece, Proceedings 3rd IWA Specialized Conference on Water & Wastewater Technologies in Ancient Civilizations, Istanbul, Turkey, 208-214, 2012.
15. #Parise, M., Underground aqueducts: A first preliminary bibliography around the world, Proceedings 3rd IWA Specialized Conference on Water & Wastewater Technologies in Ancient Civilizations, Istanbul, Turkey, 65-72, 2012.
16. #Mays, L. W., M. Sklivaniotis and A. N. Angelakis, Water for human consumption through history, Ch. 2 in Evolution of Water Supply Through the Millennia (A. N. Angelakis, L. W. Mays, D. Koutsoyiannis and N. Mamassis, eds.), 19-42, IWA Publishing, London, 2012.
17. #Angelakis, A. N., E. G. Dialynas and V. Despotakis, Evolution of water supply technologies through the centuries in Crete, Greece, Ch. 9 in Evolution of Water Supply Through the Millennia (A. N. Angelakis, L. W. Mays, D. Koutsoyiannis and N. Mamassis, eds.), 227-258, IWA Publishing, London, 2012.
18. #De Feo, G., P. Laureano, L. W. Mays and A. N. Angelakis, Water supply management technologies in the Ancient Greek and Roman civilizations, Ch. 14 in Evolution of Water Supply Through the Millennia (A. N. Angelakis, L. W. Mays, D. Koutsoyiannis and N. Mamassis, eds.), 351-382, IWA Publishing, London, 2012.
19. #Angelakis, A. N., Water supply and sewerage in Minoan Crete: lessons and legacies, Proceedings of the 2nd Joint Conference of EYE-EEDYP "Integrated Water Resources Management for Sustainable Development" (Ed.: P. Giannopoulos and A. Dimas), 509-518, Patras, Greece, 2012.
20. #Bahri, A., Integrated Urban Water Management, Global Water Partnership, Elanders, Stockholm, Sweden, 2012.
21. Angelakis, A.N., and S.V. Spyridakis, Major urban water and wastewater systems in Minoan Crete, Greece, Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 13 (3), 564-573, 2013.
22. Parise, M., A. Marangella, P. Maranò, M. Sammarco and G. Sannicola, Collecting, transporting and storing water in karst settings of southern Italy: Some lessons learned from ancient hydraulic systems, Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 13 (3), 674-682, 2013.
23. Voudouris, K. S., Y. Christodoulakos, F. Steiakakis and A. N. Angelakis, Hydrogeological characteristics of Hellenic aqueducts-like Qanats, Water, 5, 1326-1345, 2013.
24. Katsifarakis,K. L., and I. Avgoloupis, A new approach to the description of a Babylonian hydraulic work by Herodotus, The Classical Quarterly, 63 (02), 888 – 891, 2013.
25. Mays, L., G. P. Antoniou and A. N. Angelakis, History of water cisterns: legacies and lessons, Water, 5 (4), 1916-1940, 2013.
26. #Angelakis, A. Ν., Evolution of Fountains through the Centuries in Crete, Hellas, IWA Regional Symposium on Water, Wastewater & Environment: Traditions & Culture (ed. by I. K. Kalavrouziotis and A. N. Angelakis), Patras, Greece, 591-604, International Water Association & Hellenic Open University, 2014.
27. #Yannopoulos, S. I., G. Lyberatos, A. N. Angelakis and N. Theodossiou, Water pumps through the Ages, IWA Regional Symposium on Water, Wastewater & Environment: Traditions & Culture (ed. by I. K. Kalavrouziotis and A. N. Angelakis), Patras, Greece, 615-26, International Water Association & Hellenic Open University, 2014.
28. #Sazakli, E., E. Sazaklie and M. Leotsinidis, Rainwater exploitation: from ancient Greeks to modern times, IWA Regional Symposium on Water, Wastewater & Environment: Traditions & Culture (ed. by I. K. Kalavrouziotis and A. N. Angelakis), Patras, Greece, 653-661, International Water Association & Hellenic Open University, 2014.

Tagged under: Ancient technology, Hydrosystems